Darwinism and Communism
In order to understand Communism's birth, we must examine European culture in the 18th and 19th centuries. Beginning in the second century A.D. under the Emperor Constantine, Europe gradually accepted Christianity. Christian culture held sway until the Enlightenment of the 18th century, when a number of artists and thinkers began embracing the influence of pagan Greek and Roman culture and consequently, rejecting the dictates of religion. The Enlightenment's most important political result was the French Revolution, which was not only an uprising against the ancient regime, but at the same time, a revolt against religion.
The foundation of the French Revolution was established by the influence of such anti-religious thinkers as Voltaire, Diderot and Montesquieu. From 1789 on, the Enlightenment's pagan, anti-religious tendencies of became obvious. After an intense propaganda campaign, the Jacobins came to lead the revolution, established a movement against orthodox Catholicism, and even managed to create a new religion. Revolutionary worship, seen first during the national Feast of the Federation on July 14, 1790, spread quickly. Robespierre, one of the leaders of the bloody revolution, explained its rules and principles in a report, wherein he called it "The Worship of Supreme Being."'Paris's famous Nôtre Dame cathedral was changed into what he called the "Temple of Reason." Statues of Christian saints were removed from the cathedral walls, replaced by the statue of an allegorical woman called the "Goddess of Reason." In the course of the French Revolution, many priests and nuns were killed; churches and monasteries were plundered and destroyed.
At the same time, the philosophy of materialism reawakened and began to spread throughout Europe. Certain ancient Greek philosophers had first proposed this philosophy, which believes that only matter exists, that living things-indeed, human consciousness itself-are only "matter in motion." In the 18th century, two important names in the French Revolution, Denis Diderot and his close friend Baron d'Holbach, adopted this philosophy and imposed it on the people. In his book called Système de la Nature (The System of Nature) published in 1770, Baron d'Holbach used a few so-called "scientific" suppositions to propose that only matter and energy existed. A fanatical atheist, D'Holbach was opposed to the concept of morality advocating that human beings should take all the pleasure they can and do everything they can to get it.
In the 18th century, a few thinkers adopted materialism, but it became much more widespread in the 19th, overflowing the borders of France to take root in other European countries. At the beginning of the 20th century, two important Materialist thinkers appeared in Germany: Ludwig Büchner and Karl Vogt. Vogt tried to explain human rationality in terms of a simile: "the brain secretes thought just as the liver secretes bile." Not even the Materialists of his time accepted that nonsensical analogy.
Despite the proffering of such idiotic proposals, materialism was adopted by anti-religious forces, who started to impose it on European societies. Propaganda insisted that materialism was the foundation of reason and science-a deception that quickly spread among the enlightened, moving first from France to Germany and then, gradually, throughout the rest of Europe. In this respect, Freemasonry was an important ally. Masons adopted materialism as a religion and, in the 19th century, many enlightened Europeans became its members.
As this ancient dogma spread, there were attempts to adapt materialism to several branches of science:
1. To natural science, by the English naturalist Charles Darwin.
2. To social science, by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Darwin's adaptation is called the theory of evolution, while Marx and Engel's is known as Communism.
Marx and Darwin
It's possible to say that Darwin's theory includes that of Marx and Engels, because Communism is also a theory of "evolution" adapted to history and sociology. Anton Pannekoek, a renowned Darwinist-Marxist thinker, sums this up in his book Marxism and Darwinism published at the beginning of the 20th century:
The scientific importance of Marxism as well as of Darwinism consists in their following out the theory of evolution, the one upon the domain of the organic world, of things animate; the other, upon the domain of society... Thus, both teachings, the teachings of Darwin and of Marx, the one in the domain of the organic world and the other upon the field of human society, raised the theory of evolution to a positive science. In doing this they made the theory of evolution acceptable to the masses as the basic conception of social and biological development.
Darwinism and Marxism are fully compatible in two basic arguments:
1. Darwinism proposed that all existing things consist of "matter in motion." This alleges that God neither created nor ordered matter and that therefore, all life arose by chance. Human beings are a species of animal, evolved from other, lesser animals. But these claims rest on no scientific proof and have been proven false be subsequent scientific discoveries. But Darwin's theory harmonizes with the views of Marx and Engels, who believed that only matter existed, and that the whole of human history can be explained in material terms. (For more information, please refer to Darwinism Refuted:How the Theory of Evolution Breaks Down in the Light of Modern Science by Harun Yahya, Goodword Books, 2002 and The Evolution Deceit by Harun Yahya, Ta-Ha Publishers, 2002)
2. Darwinism proposed that "conflict" is the motivating force that brought about development in living creatures. His basic supposition was that the natural world's resources weren't sufficient to support living things; that therefore, organisms had to fight a constant struggle that drove evolution. The dialectical method adopted by Marx and Engels is the same as Darwin's. According to dialectics, the single motive force underlying development in the universe is the conflict between opposites. Human history has progressed by means of this conflict. Humanity itself has advanced in the same way.
When examined closely, the theories of Marx-Engels and Darwin appear to be in total harmony, as if they have arisen from a single source. Darwin applied materialist philosophy to nature, while Marx-Engels applied it to history.
In fact, Karl Marx was the first to realize Darwin's important contribution to materialism. Reading Darwin's The Origin of Species after its publication in 1859, Marx found in it great support for his own theory. A letter he wrote to Engels on December 19, 1860, says that Darwin's book "contains the basis in natural history for our view." In a letter to Lassalle in January 16, 1861, he says, "Darwin's book is very important and serves me as a basis in natural science for the class struggle in history."
Marx's dedication to Darwin of his greatest work, Das Kapital, shows the common mind that they shared. In the German edition of his book that he sent Darwin, Marx wrote with his own hand, "To Charles Darwin from a true admirer, from Karl Marx."
Engels also admired Darwin: "Nature is the test of dialectics, and it must be said . . . that in the last resort, nature works dialectically and not metaphysically . . . In this connection, Darwin must be named before all others." Elsewhere, he said that, "Just as Darwin discovered the law of evolution in organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of evolution in human history."
In denying creation, Darwin gave Communism a supposedly scientific foundation. Therefore Trotsky, one of the bloody leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution regarded Darwin as the proponent of dialectic materialism in the field of the natural sciences.
Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov, one of the leaders of Russian Communism whom Lenin praised for his command of all international Marxist literature, summed it up succinctly when he said that Marxism is "Darwinism in its application to social sciences."
Professor Malachi Martin, of the Vatican's Pontifical Bible Institute explains the relation between Marx and Darwin in these words:
. . . when Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution, Marx regarded it as far more than theory. He seized upon it as his "scientific" proof that there was no kingdom of Heaven, only the kingdom of Matter. Darwin had vindicated Marx in his rejection of Hegel's [idealism]. Ignoring the fact that Darwin's theory of evolution was just that a theory. . . Marx adapted Darwin's ideas to the social classes of his day. . . Darwin's theory of evolution being what it was, Marx reasoned that the social classes, like all matter, must always be in struggle with each other for survival and dominance.
Contemporary evolutionists also note the strong bond between Darwinism and Marxism. One of today's most famous proponents of the theory of evolution is the biologist Douglas Futuyma. In the preface to his Evolutionary Biology, he says, "Together with Marx's materialist theory of history and society... Darwin hewed the final planks of the platform of mechanism and materialism." Another famous evolutionary paleontologist Stephen J. Gould, said that "Darwin applied a consistent philosophy of materialism to his interpretation of nature." Leon Trotsky who, together with Lenin, was one of the architects of the Russian Revolution, described the discovery of Darwin as "the highest triumph of the dialectic in the whole field of organic matter ."
All this shows the great affinity between Darwinism and Marxism, that without Darwin's influence, there would have been no Marxist theory. And if Darwinism is invalid, we will understand that Marxism is invalid too. But the converse is true as well: In any society where Darwinism is widely accepted, the growth of Marxism is inevitable.
For this reason, it is very important to understand why Darwinism has no validity in the fields of either science or sociology. This understanding will prevent the revitalization of Marxism which stems from it, and which is lying in wait today-as well as forestalling any return to the agonies that humanity has suffered over the previous century. History shows that without Darwinism, there can be no Marxism.
Darwinism's Spread and The Relationship Between Communism and Capitalism
When we investigate Darwinism's political influence, keep in mind that this theory is related not to one single ideology, but to many seemingly different ones. Apart from Communism, the wide spectrum of ideologies relying on Darwinism includes racism, imperialism, capitalism, and fascism. The common point that all these apparently independent, even contrary, ideologies share is their opposition to monotheistic religions and whatever moral values that these religions inculcate.
These ideologies' leaders see religious beliefs and values as impediments, and use Darwinism as a weapon to destroy them. Ironically, by opening a "breathing room" for their own ideologies in this way, they only strengthen competing ideologies. For example, capitalists claim that a Darwinist outlook is needed to legitimate the ruthless "struggle to survive" evident in the free market. In this way, they support the very Communism that they oppose.
Anton Pannekoek's book Marxism and Darwinism refers to this interesting paradox. He describes the support given to Darwinism by the bourgeoisie (Europe's wealthy capitalist class) in these words:
That Marxism owes its importance and position only to the role it takes in the proletarian class struggle, is known to all...Yet it is not hard to see that in reality Darwinism had to undergo the same experiences as Marxism. Darwinism is not a mere abstract theory which was adopted by the scientific world after discussing and testing it in a mere objective manner. No, immediately after Darwinism made its appearance, it had its enthusiastic advocates and passionate opponents... Darwinism, too, played a role in the class-struggle, and it is owing to this role that it spread so rapidly and had enthusiastic advocates and venomous opponents.
Darwinism served as a tool to the bourgeoisie in their struggle against the feudal class, against the nobility, clergy-rights and feudal lords. ...What the bourgeoisie wanted was to get rid of the old ruling powers standing in their way... With the aid of religion the priests held the great mass in subjection and ready to oppose the demands of the bourgeoisie...Natural science became a weapon in the opposition to belief and tradition; science and the newly discovered natural laws were put forward; it was with these weapons that the bourgeoisie fought...
Darwinism came at the desired time; Darwin's theory that man is the descendant of a lower animal destroyed the entire foundation of Christian dogma. It is for this reason that as soon as Darwinism made its appearance, the bourgeoisie grasped it with great zeal...Under these circumstances, even the scientific discussions were carried on with the zeal and passion of a class struggle. The writings that appeared pro and con on Darwin have therefore the character of social polemics, despite the fact that they bear the names of scientific authors.
The spread of Darwinism actually happened this way. The forces that held sway in Europe saw Darwinism as a rare opportunity to legitimate the capitalist order they had established in their own countries, and their imperialist colonial systems throughout the world. (For details, refer to Disasters Darwinism Brought to Humanity, Harun Yahya, Attique Publishers, 2000.) Darwinism's scientific inconsistency, its imaginary suppositions and nonsensical claims have totally been ignored. Those who regard it as a weapon against religion and morality have disseminated it for ideological purposes.
But the bourgeoisie-that is, the capitalist class responsible for Darwinism's dissemination-have supported both this theory and its rival. Why? Because Darwinism's spread and the concomitant destruction of religious belief have benefited Marxism as much they have capitalism. Religion teaches such values as moderation, modesty, brotherhood, self-sacrifice and compassion. With these removed, society becomes a savage arena in which the "struggle for survival" among capitalists goes on, much as does the class struggle between capitalists and Communists.
In the fall of 1871, European naturalists gathered at an international congress. One of the speakers, the German statesman and naturalist Rudolf Virchow, said, "Be careful of this theory, for this theory is very nearly related to the theory that caused so much dread in our neighboring country." The country he meant was France, and the theory was French Communism, which created the bloody Paris Commune of that year. (The Commune was a citywide revolt led by the Communists, at a time when France was weakened after losing the Franco-Prussian War. For months, directors of the Commune administered the city. Widespread assaults were organized against religious centers and the clergy.)
Finally, despite their differences, both capitalists and Communists found common ground in their opposition to religion, and for that opposition, they found great support in Darwinism. For this reason, Communists believe that before the revolution can occur, a society must first become capitalist.. According to this idea, along with the general adoption of capitalist morality (where Darwinist propaganda plays a vital role), a society must first discard religion before Communism can grow. In Vladimir Lenin's 1909 article titled "The Attitude of the Workers' Party to Religion," the Communist leader describes the role played by the capitalist bourgeoisie in opposing religion:
. . . the task of combating religion is historically the task of the revolutionary bourgeoisie. In the West, this task was to a large extent performed by bourgeois democracy, in the epoch of its revolutions against feudalism and medievalism... Both France and Germany have a tradition of bourgeois war on religion, which began long before socialism (the Encyclopaedists and Feuerbach). In Russia, because of the conditions of our bourgeois-democratic revolution, this task too falls almost entirely on the shoulders of the working class.
Lenin is saying that capitalists have the obligation to wage war against religion, as they have in Europe; that because the capitalist class does not exist in Russia, he and his party will undertake this war against religion. His words show that in essence, the opposition between capitalism and Communism is an "inner conflict" only. Actually, these two forces' common enemy is religion.
Communists are clearly attempting to erode societies, alienate people from the truth, and weaken their moral values and humanity, so as to make them accept their own irreligious system. But none of their attacks against religion can succeed at all. Don't forget, many have tried to destroy true religion in the past, disobeying God's apostles and turning away from His holy Books. But their fate is the same: God afflicts some of those who fight against His religion with troubles in this world, while others must wait for the Last Day to receive their painful torment. As the Qur'an (40:4-6) announces,
No one disputes God's Signs except those who disbelieve. Do not let their free movement about the earth deceive you. The people of Noah denied the truth before them, and the Confederates after them. Every nation planned to seize its Messenger and used false arguments to rebut the truth. So I seized them, and how [awful] was My punishment! So your Lord's Words about those who disbelieve proved true, that they are indeed the Companions of the Fire.
Communism's Hostility to Religion
In the Qur'an, it is revealed that throughout history, cruel and tyrannical leaders have arisen who have denied God and religion. In one verse (28: 41), God calls them "leaders summoning to the fire." This kind of character typified by the person of Pharaoh in various accounts about Moses in the Qur'an. There have been other cruel rulers who opposed Prophet Abraham and the Companions of the Cave (a group of believers recounted in the Qur'an) and who, just like Pharaoh, killed people simply for having faith in God. It's possible to find these tyrannical characters in every era of history. These leaders of irreligion have committed similar acts of cruelty against their societies, used the same methods in trying to alienate people from religion, and led the unwary to destruction in this world and the hereafter.
Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Mao Tse-tung and the fathers of their ideas, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Charles Darwin exercised leadership in irreligion in yet another way by his theory of evolution.
Communism's hostility to religion is beyond dispute. Look at the writings of any Communist ideologue, and you will find this expressed openly. Marx himself called religion the "opium of the people," described it as created by the ruling class to narcotize the poor, and proposed that religious belief must be destroyed if Communism were to advance. Engels wrote that human beings are descended from monkeys, claiming that religion developed as merely a stage in the process of evolution.
To destroy religion, what kind of policies do Communists implement? Lenin gave the first comprehensive answer.. In 1900, as leader of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (later to become the Communist Party), he wrote an article titled "The Attitude of the Worker's Party to Religion," published in the Proletary magazine. In that article he wrote:
Social-Democracy bases its whole world-outlook on scientific socialism, i.e., Marxism. The philosophical basis of Marxism, as Marx and Engels repeatedly declared, is dialectical materialism, which has fully taken over the historical traditions of eighteenth-century materialism in France and of Feuerbach (first half of the nineteenth century) in Germany -- a materialism which is absolutely atheistic and positively hostile to all religion. Let us recall that the whole of Engels's Anti-Dühring, which Marx read in manuscript, is an indictment of the materialist and atheist Dühring for not being a consistent materialist and for leaving loopholes for religion and religious philosophy. Let us recall that in his essay on Ludwig Feuerbach, Engels reproaches Feuerbach for combating religion not in order to destroy it, but in order to renovate it, to invent a new, "exalted" religion, and so forth. "Religion is the opium of the people" -- this dictum by Marx is the corner-stone of the whole Marxist outlook on religion.
In 1905, he published an article entitled "Socialism and Religion" in the magazine Nozvaya Zhizn in which he called religion a "fog" that must be dispersed. In that article, he also described the atheist propaganda that Communists must spread against religion:
Our Programme is based entirely on the scientific, and moreover the materialist, world-outlook. . . . Our propaganda necessarily includes the propaganda of atheism; the publication of the appropriate scientific literature, which the autocratic feudal government has hitherto strictly forbidden and persecuted, must now form one of the fields of our Party work. We shall now probably have to follow the advice Engels once gave to the German Socialists: to translate and widely disseminate the literature of the eighteenth-century French Enlighteners and atheists.
Note that Lenin said the battle Marxists much wage against religion has to start by disseminating "scientific literature" and the writings of the 18th-century Enlightenment atheists. "Scientific literature" means theories that impose materialism in the guise of science (such as Darwinism); and these "French Enlighteners" include Diderot and D'Holbach, who wrote materialist propaganda against religion long before Marx.
Among Communists, this method Lenin taught is still in use. If we examine certain publishing houses, scientific magazines and media institutions throughout the world, we clearly see that Marxists are behind publications that espouse Darwinist and Enlightenment philosophy.
Communism's Hidden Hostility to Religion
While Marxists are not in power, their currents of thought don't usually follow a definite aggressive policy against religion. It's even possible for some Communists to seem to show respect for religion and its adherents. What is the purpose for this moderation?
The answer to this question can be found among the writings of Lenin. In "The Attitude of the Worker's Party to Religion," he wrote that, starting with the interpretations and practices of experts like Marx and Engels, war must never be openly declared against religion. This was an unnecessary "gamble of a political war." Other materialists (for example, the anarchists or "bourgeois atheists") had voiced hostility to religion and initiated anti-religious campaigns. Lenin found their activities simple and naïve. He rejected the accusations of "moderation" and "inconsistency" these people leveled against Marxists and stated that the "Marxist tactics in regard to religion are thoroughly consistent, and were carefully thought out by Marx and Engels."
Lenin continued this moderate stance until the Communists came to power in 1917. But after this, his moderation disappeared and replaced it with widespread oppression of religion and religious people throughout the Soviet territory. Earlier, Lenin had stated thatCommunists must not openly declare themselves to be atheists and must even accept believers in religion into their ranks. But once he came to power, he followed a much different path. In The Harvest of Sorrow, the American historian Robert Conquest describes some of the main points of Bolshevik religious policy:
Priests and clerics were declared, under another article of the 1918 Constitution, to be 'servants of the bourgeoisie' and disfranchised. This involved their receiving no ration cards, or those of the lowest category; their children were barred from school above the elementary grade; and so on.
A decree of 28 January 1918 forbade religious instruction in schools, though it was permitted to 'study or teach religious subjects privately.' This last was further restricted by a decree of 13 June 1921 which forbade the religious instruction anywhere of groups of persons below the age of eighteen. . . .
. . . A law of 8 April 1929 forbade religious organizations to establish mutual assistance funds; to extend material aid to their members; 'to organize special prayer or other meetings for children, youths or women, or to organize general bible, literary, handicraft, working, religious study or other meetings, groups, circles or branches, to organize excursions or children's playgrounds, or to open libraries or reading rooms, or to organize sanatoria or medical aid.' In fact, as an official comment put it, church activity was reduced to the performance of religious services.
On 22 May 1929, Article 18 of the Constitution was amended; instead of 'freedom of religious and anti-religious propaganda' it now read 'freedom of religious worship and anti-religious propaganda'; at the same time the Commissariat of Education replaced a policy of non-religious teaching in schools by orders for definitely anti-religious instruction. . . .
. . . Collectivization 'usually involved the closure of the local church as well'. Icons were confiscated as a matter of routine and burned along with other objects of religious worship. A confidential letter from the Western Provincial Committee on 20 February 1930 speaks of drunken soldiers and Komsomols [members of the Communist youth organization] who 'without mass preparation' were 'arbitrarily closing village churches, breaking ikons, and threatening the peasants'.
The closures applied to all religions. . . .
. . . Moreover when churches were closed, this did not mean that religious work was permitted outside them. The closure of nine major churches in Kharkov was accompanied by a decision 'to take proper steps to prevent prayer meetings in private homes now that the churches are closed'.
The Kazan Cathedral in Leningrad was turned into an anti-religious museum. . . .
. . . The St Sophia Cathedral and other churches in Kiev were turned into museums or anti-religious centres. In Kharkov, St. Andrey's was turned into a cinema; another into a radio station; another into a machine-parts store. In Poltava, two were turned into granaries, another into a machine repair shop. . . .
. . . These measures applied to all religions. 'Churches and synagogues' is often the phrasing in official decrees in the European part of the USSR. Elsewhere Islam was equally persecuted. . .
. . . In the collectivization evangelical leaders in the villages were excluded from the kolkhozes and denounced as kulaks; and most of them were deported.
After the Bolshevik revolution, Lenin's tactic of "being moderate towards religion" turned into fanatical hostility. As we saw earlier, to Lenin, the famine of 1920-21 that cost millions of lives would weaken people's faith in God.
Lenin, with his rebellious spirit against God and religion, lost his mental balance and suffered great pain. God returned to Lenin in this world some of the cruelty he inflicted on people with his hostility to religion. The Qur'an (58:5-6) speaks of the terrible recompense that such cruel people will receive on the Last Day:
Those who oppose God and His Messenger will be subdued and overcome as those before them were also subdued and overcome. We have sent down Clear Signs. The disbelievers will have a humiliating punishment. On the Day God raises up all of them together, He will inform them of what they did. God has recorded it while they have forgotten it. God is a Witness of all things.
When Stalin rose to power, he was just as anti-religious as his predecessor. He displayed his hostility by killing millions of believers, destroying religious institutions and places of worship, and by initiating endless atheist propaganda. One of the most important weapons in Stalin's propaganda attack was the theory of evolution. In his autobiography, he wrote:
In order to disabuse the minds of our seminary students of the myth that the world was created in six days, we had to acquaint ourselves with the geological origin and age of the earth, and be able to prove them in argument; we had to familiarize ourselves with Darwin's teachings.
In the book Anarchism or Socialism?, Stalin pits Darwin against Cuvier, a creationist scientist and founder of the science of fossils. He writes, "Marxism rests on Darwinism and treats it uncritically, i.e., the Marxists repudiate Cuvier's cataclysms."
COMMUNISM AND THE IRRELIGIOUS SYSTEMS REVEALED IN THE QUR'AN
At the root of the characteristics of the Communist system is its anti-religious ideology. The reason for its brutality and dullness is this same crazed hostility toward religion.
Religion is part of the way of living and thinking that God has given the human beings He created. The best life for Man is one based on religious belief; because the One Who knows the human spirit best is our Lord Who created it. Only a system founded on religion can give peace, while systems rejecting religion will inevitably bring pain, sorrow, fear and insecurity. Above all, these systems opposing all religious truth, trying to force people live in contradiction to it, constitute an even greater danger. Historically, Communism has been one of the most striking examples of just such a system.
Interestingly, Communism shows important similarities to the godless systems that God has described in the Qur'an. Comparing the godless system of Pharaoh given in the Qur'an with some other systems of our age, we see a great similarity.
Passion for Big Buildings
One common characteristic of all irreligious administrations is their seeking to captivate onlookers with grandeur. Their haughtiness and humiliation of other people are expressed in various ways.
As an example, God tells in the Qur'an about Pharaoh's administration in Egypt in the time of Prophet Moses. In his pride, Pharaoh opposed both God and His apostle Moses, while subjecting his own people to oppression. An example of Pharaoh's arrogance was his command to have a "high tower" built. The Qur'an (28:38) reveals Pharaoh's command to Haman, one of his closest man:
Pharaoh said, "Councilmen, I do not know of any other god for you apart from Me. Haman, kindle a fire for me over the clay and build me a lofty tower, so that perhaps I may be able to climb up to Moses's god! I consider him [Moses] a blatant liar."
This desire for a "high tower," an expression of Pharaoh's pride, is also reflected in Communist dictatorships' passion for "big buildings." Beginning with the Soviet Union, all Communist states constructed excessively large state buildings as symbols of the regime's strength and endurance. For a long time, the palace built by Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu in Bucharest retained the title of the world's largest building. Yet this palace has a very cold and joyless appearance; size was its most important consideration and it remains an expression of the "superiority complex" of Communist ideology.
In the Qur'an, God reveals some actions that brought destruction upon their perpetrators, including the removal of people from their homelands. For example, those who denied God threatened the prophets that were sent to them: "We will drive you from our land unless you return to our religion..." (Qur'an, 14:13) As is told in verse 22:40, they tried especially to remove Muslims; "those who were expelled from their homes without any right, merely for saying, 'Our Lord is God'."
Communist regimes have engineered the greatest forced migrations, and Muslims have been the target of most of them. In Stalin's time, first the Crimean Turks and later, many other Muslim peoples were forced to leave their lands overnight and were dispatched, hungry and miserable to the most barren regions of Russia. Hundreds of thousands of innocents died on the way, and those who survived to reach their destinations died of hunger, infectious diseases, and freezing cold.
The Destruction of Freedom of Belief
As told in the Qur'an, one characteristic feature of Pharaoh's administration was its outlawing freedom of belief. The system determined what kind of beliefs people could hold. Pharaoh's question to the magicians who believed in Moses shows this clearly; "Have you believed in Him before I authorized you to do so?" (Qur'an, 7:123) Again, while speaking to his people, Pharaoh said that he taught the people the truth they needed to know, and that they shouldn't search for any other truth besides what he taught them: "I only show you what I see myself and I only guide you to the path of rectitude." (Qur'an, 40:29)
Pharaoh's modern representatives are the Soviet Union and all the other Communist regimes of the 20th century that attempted to establish totalitarian regimes. In any totalitarianism system, society is totally shaped by the State. People are physically governed by State oppression and mentally by propaganda. The model of Pharaoh's totalitarian system, as described in the Qur'an, was revived in the 20th century by dictators like Lenin, Stalin, and Mao. The Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha, as we mentioned earlier, forbade his countrymen from practicing any religious faith. He closed all places of worship and advertised the government he'd founded as the "world's first atheist State."
The Idolization of Leaders
In the Qur'an (28:38), God tells us that Pharaoh tried to make himself a god in the eyes of the people, as can plainly be seen in Pharaoh's words to those around him: "Councilmen, I do not know of any other god for you apart from me." Egyptian history shows us how its pharaohs described themselves as "gods in this world."
Communist regimes wielded the same kind of psychology. Dictators such as Lenin, Stalin, Mao and North Korea's Kim Il Sung initiated programs of mass brainwashing to make themselves seem as gods in the eyes of their peoples. This "cult of personality" was an expression of the policy of "idolizing the leaders."
This tendency towards idolization started first with Lenin, leader of the first Communist revolution in Russia. Indeed, some of the writings Lenin left behind show a noticeable "aura of religion"-but a religion of idols. Lenin organized the Communist Party as a kind of non-religious sect. Upon his death, Party members held a huge ceremony in which they addressed Lenin's corpse with liturgical words such as: "Comrad Lenin, we swear we will carry out your orders." Lenin's body was mummified, like an ancient Egyptian pharaoh's, and placed in an elaborate tomb.
Stalin and Mao followed Lenin's example. Both leaders had giant statues of themselves erected in every city of their countries, trying to produce a portrait of their people's "god-leader." Mao wrote The Little Red Book, and every Chinese citizen was responsible for reading this "holy" book and implementing its precepts in his life. Many Chinese still visit the statues of the "Great Helmsman" erected in every part of the country, and on Mao's birthday there are mass suicides.
In North Korea, Kim Il Sung was also idolized after he came to power. He was known as the "Sun of the People," who believed he could lead them along the right path without ever making a mistake. The same thing happened with Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam's Communist dictator.
The system of oligarchy is "minority rule," in which political power rests in the hands of a limited group. A look into the Qur'an shows that godless systems have a basically oligarchic structure. When we examine the many verses that speak of "the chiefs of the nations," we see that these people have taken all political power into their own hands, governing society according to their own ideas. When we look at the verses relating to Pharaoh, we see that his administration was an oligarchic class, composed of advisors, magicians and soldiers. In order to keep the people bound to Pharaoh's administration, the magicians controlled their thinking. The soldiers ensured the same control by brute force.
Communist regimes are the modern counterpart of the godless oligarchic system mentioned in the Qur'an. Communists started out by offering "power of the people," but in every country where they came to power, they established minority power relying on domination. All political power in the country passed into the hands of a party that bore the name of the "proletarian party" or Workers' Party, but had no relationship with the workers. The decision-making mechanisms-known as the Communist Party Central Committee and the Politburo, together with the General Secretary over them-retained all the power and used it mercilessly. In Communist regimes, all the supposedly "democratic" mechanisms, such as elections and party congresses, were only a show.
The "Destruction of Crops and Breeding Stock"
When describing the quality of godless administrations in the Qur'an (2:205-206), God draws our attention to something very important:
When he holds the upper hand, he goes about the earth corrupting it, destroying (people's) crops and breeding stock. God does not love corruption. When he is told to heed God, he is seized by pride which drives him to wrongdoing. Hell will be enough for him! What an evil resting-place!
Notice that "going about the earth corrupting it" and "destroying crops and breeding stock" in these verses precisely describe the slaughters and collectivizations implemented by Communist regimes of the Soviet Union, Red China, and Cambodia. Lenin, Stalin, Mao and Pol Pot forced an atmosphere of chaos and terror on their countries. By implementing Lysenko's evolutionist nonsense, they destroyed all the products of agriculture, killed countless numbers, and nearly erased a whole generation. Later, this same verse reveals that the people who perpetrated this were arrogant and irreligious. This description perfectly fits these dictators, who regarded themselves as gods.
Communism is still alive, and in our very midst. Communist or Socialist parties will not find it difficult to rise to power in most of Eastern Europe or even in some Western European countries. If they find appropriate social conditions (as when the Nazis came to power in Germany's elections of 1933), they may establish a lasting Communist regime. Russia experienced a development from Communism to Fascism and then towards savage capitalism, but since the boundary isn't clear-cut between these ideologies, Russia can return to Communism as the result of a social movement. China still regards Maoism's ideas as the only truth, and Communism's influence is still strongly evident in Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam.
Today' s Communism, implementing the "one step forward two steps back" tactic, has taken a step back. It continues its activities in various countries under different names, while giving the impression that it presents no threat to the world. But by supporting the "conflict" argument of dialectical materialism, Communism is an endless fountain of bloodshed. Under whatever appearance or name, still it regards the dialectical conflict as an inevitable law of history and can bring humanity nothing but bring cruelty and misery.
The precaution that must be taken is to dry up the Communist swamp that produces this danger. Otherwise, struggling with the mosquitoes (that is, with Communist supporters) one by one will be of no avail. So long as the swamp is not dried up, the mosquitoes will continue to hatch at an increasing rate.
Following this analogy, how is the "swamp" to be dried up?
The common support for Marxists, Marxist-Leninists, Maoists or any other version of Communism (even Fascism) is Darwin's theory of evolution. As we have seen, Marx called this theory the "basis in natural science for the class struggle in history." Engels considered Darwin the equal of Marx, from the point of view of his dialectical materialist doctrine. Lenin and Trotsky were each influenced by Darwin and after reading him, the young Stalin-studying to be a clergyman-became an atheist. Maoism's and Chinese Communism's intellectual foundations are rooted in Darwinism.
The Marxist student movement that shook the world in 1968 was inspired by Herbert Marcuse, an ideologue influenced by Darwinism and particularly by Darwin's idea of the "struggle for existence."122 The list of Socialists who accepted Darwin as a guide would include a wide spectrum of names, including the revisionist Marxists Karl Kautsky and Eduard Bernstein, and the founder of the famous Fabian Society that is regarded as the source of the English left.
Without Darwinism, Communism would not exist. Therefore, the only antidote for the Communism that cost the lives of more than 100 million in the 20th century alone, and which is now reorganizing and strengthening in secret, is to refute Darwinism's scientific and philosophical ideas. Once it is established that Darwinian theory is completely bankrupt in terms of science-that living things did not come to be through evolution, but that God created them perfectly-then neither Marx, Lenin, nor Mao, nor the militants who attach posters to their walls and who execute acts of bloodshed, can remain.
By eradicating the deceit of Darwinism, wells of bloodshed like Communism will be destroyed. People will return to God, our true Creator and Lord, and live according to the moral values He has taught. Then, as is commanded in Verse 2:208 of the Qur'an, people will enjoy peace and security:
You who believe! Submit all of you to God and do not follow in the footsteps of Satan. He is an outright enemy to you.