Fascism and Darwinism
Fascism is known as an ideology that was born and flourished in the 20th century. It spread rapidly across the world in the wake of World War I, with fascist regimes coming to power in Germany and Italy in particular, but also in such countries as Greece, Spain and Japan, where the people suffered greatly from the oppressive and violent methods employed by their governments. Against this oppression and violence, they could do little more than cower before it. The fascist dictator and his administration heading such systems, where brute force, aggression, bloodshed and violence were the rule of the day, sent waves of terror throughout the society with their secret police and fascist militia, paralyzing the people with fear. Furthermore, fascist administration was implemented in almost all levels of society, from education to culture, religion to art, the governmental structure to the military system, and from the policing organizations to peoples' private lives. Ultimately, World War II, initiated by fascists, was one of the gravest calamities in the history of mankind, leaving as many as 55 million dead.
However, fascism is not an ideology found only in history books. Although today there are no states that call themselves fascist or who practice it openly, there are, nevertheless, in many countries in the world, governments, political groups and parties who follow fascistic policies. Though the names and tactics have changed, they continue to inflict similar suffering on their people. There is also a possibility that the coming deterioration of social conditions could lead to further growth in the support for fascism. For that reason, fascism is a continuing threat to humanity.
The Origin of Fascist Mentality
Fascism is an ideology which has its roots in Europe. The foundation of fascism was laid by a number of European thinkers in the19th century, and put into practice in the 20th century by such countries as Italy and Germany. Other countries, which were influenced by fascism or adopted it, "imported" the ideology from Europe. So, in order to examine the roots of fascism, we must turn to the history of Europe.
European history has gone through several stages and periods. But, in the broadest sense, we can divide it into three fundamental periods:
1) The pre-Christian (pagan) period.
2) The period when Christianity assumed cultural dominance in Europe.
3) The post-Christian (materialist) period.
The idea of a "Post-Christian" period may strike many readers as odd, because Christianity is still by far the majority religion in European society. But Christianity is no longer a dominant aspect of European culture: all that remains is lip-service paid to it. The real ideologies and concepts that now direct society have been formed, not by the dictates of religion, but from the materialist philosophy. This anti-religious current began in the 18th century, and came to dominate science and the realm of ideas in the 19th. And, it was the 20th century when the catastrophic results of materialism were finally witnessed.
In regards to these three periods, we can see that fascism belongs to the first and third. In other words, fascism is a product of paganism, and was later reinforced with the rise of materialism. Fascist ideology or practice was non-existent throughout the thousand or so years when Christianity dominated Europe. The reason being that Christianity
is a religion of peace and equality. Christianity, which calls people to love, compassion, self-sacrifice, and humility, is the complete antithesis of fascism.
Christianity is originally a divine religion, incepted by the Prophet Jesus. After Jesus, it departed from its original form with some applications and interpretations. Nevertheless, it has managed to maintain certain aspects of the essence of the true religion, with concepts such love, compassion, sacrifice, and humility, as set out above.
Let us now have a brief look at pre-Christian Europe and examine the roots of fascism.
Fascists in the Pagan World
Essentially, as a pagan culture, religion in pre-Christian Europe was polytheistic. Europeans believed the false gods they worshipped represented various forces or aspects of life, and most important were the gods of war, much like those who have appeared in just about every pagan society.
This prestige the gods of war enjoyed in pagan belief was the result of these societies' regarding violence as sacred. Pagan peoples were essentially barbaric and lived in a state of permanent warfare. To kill and spill blood in the name of their nation was seen as a sacred duty. Savagery and violence of almost every kind could find justification in paganism. There was no ethical foundation to forbid violence or brutality. Even Rome, thought of as the most "civilized" state in the pagan world, was a place where people were made to fight to the death or torn to pieces by wild animals. The Emperor Nero came to power by having countless numbers of people killed, including his own mother, wife, and stepbrother. He had Christians devoured by wild animals in the arena, and tortured thousands of people simply because of their beliefs. An example of his cruelty was his setting the city of Rome on fire, as he played the lyre and watched the horrible scene from a window in his palace.
Though Rome was immersed in a culture of violence, the barbarian and pagan nations of the north, such as the Vandals, Goths, and Visigoths, were still more savage. They strove to wreak devastation on each other, as well as plundering Rome. The pagan world was a place where violence prevailed, where the use of brutality of every kind was encouraged, and where there was no consideration at all for ethics.
The best example in the pagan world of a "fascist" system, in the modern sense, was the Greek city-state of Sparta.
Fascism's Retreat in the Face of Christianity
The fascistic pagan culture which dominated Europe disappeared in stages with the spread of Christianity in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, first to Rome, and then to all of Europe. Christianity carried to European society the basic ethical characteristics of the true religion revealed to man by the Prophet Jesus. Europe, which had once encouraged violence, conflict and bloodshed as sacred, and been composed of different tribes, races and city-states constantly at war with one another, underwent an important change.
1) Racial and tribal wars disappeared: In the pagan world, all tribes and races saw each other as enemies, and there was constant fighting between them. Each pagan society had its own gods and totems which it invented, waging war in their name. With the coming of Christianity, there was a single belief, culture, and even language in Europe as a whole, thus the conflicts of the pagan world came to an end.
2) Peace and compassion came to be considered sacred, instead of violence: In pagan societies, inflicting bloodshed, suffering and torture was seen as heroic, actions that appeased the imaginary "gods of war." Under Christianity however, European societies learned that people should love each other and exercise compassion (even for their enemies), and that the shedding of blood was a great sin in the sight of God.
3) The perception of human beings as a species of animal disappeared: The Spartans regarding their warriors as equivalent to "watch-dogs" was an extension of the "animist" belief widespread in pagan societies. Animism implied ascribing a soul to nature and animals. According to animism, there was no difference between a human being and an animal, or even a plant. But when religion came to predominate, this superstition disappeared, and European societies realized that human beings possessed a soul given to them by God, and were completely different from animals, and could not, therefore, be subject to the same laws.
These three aspects of paganism-racism, bloodshed, and equating human beings with animals-are also the basic characteristics of fascism. In Europe, they were vanquished by Christianity. In the Middle East, the same victory was achieved by Islam over Arab paganism. Before the advent of Islam, the Arabs (and other Middle Eastern and Central Asian societies) were warlike, blood-thirsty, and racist. The Spartans' barbaric "abandonment of unwanted children to die" was adopted by the pagan Arabs, in the form of burying their female children alive. The Koran mentions this savage practice:
When the baby girl buried alive is asked for what crime she was killed. (Koran, 81: 8-9)
When any of them is given the good news of (the birth of a daughter) the very thing which he himself has ascribed to the All-Merciful his face darkens and he is furious. (Koran, 43:17)
The Arabs, and other Middle Eastern and Central Asian cultures, were only transformed into peaceful, civilized, intelligent societies opposed to bloodshed after they were enlightened by Islam. Thus they were freed from the old tribal wars and nomadic savagery, and found peace and stability in religion.
Darwinism and the Revival of Pagan Superstition of Evolution
One of the superstitions to survive from paganism, but which only began to be revived in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, was the "theory of evolution," a theory which maintained that all living things came into existence as the result of pure chance, and then developed from one to another.
Unaware of the existence of God, and worshipping false idols which they themselves devised, pagans answered the question of how life came about with the concept of "evolution." This notion is first seen in inscriptions from ancient Sumeria, but was given shape in ancient Greece. Pagan philosophers such as Thales, Anaximander and Empedocles, claimed that living things, in other words human beings, animals and plants, formed themselves from such inanimate substances as air, fire and water. According to their theories, the first living things suddenly emerged in water and then adapted to the land. Thales had spent time in Egypt, where the superstition that "living things formed themselves out of mud" was widespread. The Egyptians believed that in this way the frogs which appeared when the waters of the Nile receded were formed.
Thales adopted the superstition and attempted to present a number of arguments on its behalf, proposing that all living things came into existence by and of themselves. These claims of his were based solely in theory, not on experiment and observation. Other ancient Greek philosophers employed the same method.
Anaximander, a student of Thales, developed the theory of evolution, giving rise to to two important modes of Western thought. The first of these was that the universe had always existed and will continue to exist into eternity. The second was the idea that living things evolved from each other, an idea which had slowly begun to take shape in Thales' time. The first written work to discuss the theory of evolution was the classical poem On Nature, in which Anaximander wrote that creatures arose from slime that had been evaporated by the sun. He thought that the first animals lived in the sea and had prickly, scaly coverings. As these fish-like creatures evolved, they moved onto land, shed their scaly coverings, and became humans.6 Books on philosophy describe how Anaximander shaped the foundation of the theory of evolution:
We find that Anaximander of Miletus (611 B.C.-546 B.C.) advanced the traditional evolutionary idea, already quite common in his day, that life first evolved from a type of pre-biotic soup, helped along a bit by the rays of the sun. He believed that the first animals developed from sea slime which had been evaporated by the sun rays. He also believed that men were descended from fish.
In short, one of the two fundamental components of Darwinism, the claim that living things evolved from each other as a result of coincidences, was the product of pagan philosophy. The second important element of Darwin's theory, "the struggle for survival," was also a pagan belief. It was the Greek philosophers who first suggested there was a war for survival between living things in nature.
The notion of evolution, which the pagan philosophers had construed, not by experiment and observation, but by abstract reasoning, began to be reiterated in 18th century Europe. In pagan thought, the concept of evolution was called "the Great Chain of Being," an idea that influenced such early defenders of evolutionary theory as the French scientists Benoit de Maillet, Pierre de Maupertuis, Comte de Buffon and Jean Baptiste Lamarck. In his Histoire Naturelle, Buffon reveals himself as "an exponent of the doctrine of the Great Chain of Being, with man being placed at the tope of the Chain."8 Buffon's evolutionist views were passed on to Lamarck, and eventually inherited by Charles Darwin.
Charles Darwin's grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, was an evolutionist who adhered to pagan beliefs. Erasmus Darwin was one of the masters at the famous Canongate Kilwining Masonic lodge in Edinburgh, Scotland. He also had close connections to the Jacobins in France, and the Masonic organization of the Illuminati, whose founding principle was the hatred of religion. From the research he carried out in his eight-hectare botanical garden, he developed the ideas that would later go on to shape Darwinism, collected together in his books The Temple of Nature and Zoonomia. The concept of "the temple of nature" that Erasmus employed was a testament to the pagan beliefs he adopted, a repetition of the old pagan belief that nature possesses a creative force.
Darwinism Prepared the Foundation for Fascism
The myth of evolution, a legacy of Sumerian and Greek paganism, was introduced into the Western agenda with Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species, published in 1859. In this work, as in The Descent of Man, he discussed certain pagan concepts that had disappeared in Europe under Christianity, and gave them "justification" under the guise of science. We can outline these pagan concepts which he attempted to justify, thus preparing the groundwork for the development of fascism, as follows:
1) Darwinism provided the justification for racism: In the subtitle to The Origin of the Species, Darwin wrote: "The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life." With these words, Darwin was claiming that certain races in nature are more "favored" than others, in other words, that they were superior. He revealed this dimension of his ideas regarding human races in The Descent of Man, where he proposed that European white men were superior to races such as Africans, Asians and Turks, and were permitted to enslave them.
2) Darwinism provided a justification for bloodshed: As we have seen, Darwin proposed that a deadly "struggle for survival" takes place in nature. He claimed that this principle applied to both societies and to individuals, that it was a struggle to the death, and that it was quite natural for different races to try to eliminate others for its own sake. In short, Darwin described an arena where the only rule was violence and conflict, thus replacing the concepts of peace, cooperation, self-sacrifice, that had spread to Europe with the advent of Christianity. Darwinism thus resurrected the notion of the "arena," an exhibition of violence devised in the pagan world (the Roman Empire).
3) Darwinism brought the concept of eugenics back into Western thought: The concept of maintaining racial supremacy through breeding, known as eugenics, which the Spartans had implemented, and which Plato defended by the words, "Our warrior-athletes must be vigilant like watch-dogs," re-emerged in the Western world with Darwinism. Darwin devoted whole chapters in The Origin of Species to discussing the "improvement of animal races," and maintained, in The Descent of Man, that human beings were a species of animal. Some time later, Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, was to take his uncle's claims a step further, and put forward the modern theory of eugenics. (Nazi Germany would be the first state to implement eugenics as official policy).
As we have seen, Darwin's theory seems to be a concept that concerns only the science of biology, but it actually formed the basis for a totally new political outlook. Within a very short time, this new attitude was redefined as "Social Darwinism." And as many historians have come to accept, Social Darwinism became the ideological basis of fascism and Nazism.
The effect of Darwinism's portrayal of war and conflict as necessary has been analyzed in great detail in Paul Crook's Cambridge University publication Darwinism, War and History: The Debate over the Biology of War from 'The Origin of Species' to the First World War. Crook has made it clear that by presenting war as a "biological necessity," Darwinism formed both the formal justification for the First World War, as well as for various other warlike tendencies in fascism. Crook writes:
Darwinist discourse conferred approval on a range of doctrines glorifying power, status, elitism, conquest and repression. Differences between cultures, genders, classes and races were reduced to fixed biological differences, imprinted in humans during eons of selective struggle. Darwin's conflict model generated militarist and racist extrapolations that conferred approval on war and imperial struggle as 'biological necessities'.
From such [Darwinist] assumptions, a variety of unpleasant consequences could be derived... War is rationalised... As Frederick Wertham has argued, if violence 'is all in human nature, and if we are all guilty, then nobody is guilty. And if we are all responsible, no man is responsible' ...The First World War was portrayed as the final vindication of the mythology of bestiality, encoded anew in terms of neo-Darwinian genetics and instinct theory.
Fascim, Racism and Darwinism
We can list the principle features of fascism as such concepts as authoritarian or dictatorial state rule, and an aggressive foreign policy. But alongside all of these, its really dominant characteristic is racism. When we look at the Nazi ideology, in particular, we can see that it is racism that makes fascism what it is. The Nazis set out with the dream of establishing the hegemony of the Aryan race, which they believed to be superior, over the whole world, an idea on which all their policies and social measures were based. In the words of Wilhelm Reich, "The race theory is German fascism's theoretical axis."
Racism was also the fundamental ideology of other fascist regimes, such as those of Mussolini and Franco, even if not to the extent it was in Nazism. Mussolini suggested that the Romans who had governed the Roman Empire were a "superior race," and that the Italians, as their descendants, also possessed this superior nature. The conquest of Ethiopia was based on this notion of the superior race, and that the black-skinned Ethiopians need submit to the Italians, in accordance to what was perceived as a natural racial hierarchy. Franco made similar claims for the Spanish.
Japanese fascism, which developed before the Second World War, and was part of the Hitler-Mussolini alliance, also possessed a "superior race" complex. In the New York Times of August 14, 1942, Otto D. Tolischus wrote about a booklet issued in Tokyo by Professor Chikao Fujisawa, one of the leading exponents of Japan's political thought and philosophy;
According to this booklet, which was made up for widest distribution, Japan, as the original motherland of the human race and world civilization, is fighting a holy war to reunite warring mankind into one universal family household in which every nation will take its proper place under the divine sovereignty of the Japenese Emperor, who is a direct descendant of the Sun Goddess in the "absolute cosmic life-center," from which the nations have strayed and to which they must return.
The interesting thing is that the alliance of the fascist states was set up between groups who each saw themselves as the "superior race." For instance, the Nazis did not object to the Japanese superior race claims, but even encouraged them by describing them as "honorary Aryans."
The Nazi Theory of Race
In The Mass Psychology of Fascism Wilhelm Reich describes the Nazi theory of race thus:
The race theory proceeds from the presupposition that the exclusive mating of every animal with its own species is an "iron law" in nature. Only exceptional circumstances, such as captivity, are capable of causing a violation of this law and of leading to racial interbreeding. When this occurs, however, nature revenges itself and uses every means at its disposal to oppose such infringements, either by making the bastard sterile or by limiting the fertility of later offspring. In every crossbreeding of two living creatures of different "levels," the offspring will of necessity represent something intermediate. But nature aims at a higher breeding of life; hence bastardization is contrary to the will of nature. Natural selection also takes place in the daily struggle for survival, in which the weaker, i.e., racially inferior, perish. This is consistent with the "will of nature," for every improvement and higher breeding would cease if the weak, who are in the majority, could crowd out the strong, who are in the minority.
As we have seen, this biological premise that forms the basis of the Nazis' race theory is "undiluted" Darwinism. Nonsense such as the notion that nature's aim is to "cause superior species to evolve," that it uses natural selection to do so, and that the weak are inevitably eliminated, are all typically Darwinian.
These evolutionist views, which have no scientific basis, and are just a reworking of the pagan absurdity of "ascribing consciousness to nature," finally reached their culmination in the savagery of the Nazis. The theory was put into practice in human societies, again in a manner in conformity with Darwinism. Wilhelm Reich continues:
The National Socialist went on to apply this supposed law in nature to peoples. Their line of reasoning was something as follows: Historical experience teaches that the "intermixing of Aryan blood" with "inferior" peoples always results in the degeneration of the founders of civilization. The level of the superior race is lowered, followed by physical and mental retrogression; this marks the beginning of a progressive "decline." The North American continent would remain strong, Hitler states, "as long as he [the German inhabitant] does not fall a victim to defilement of the blood," that is to say, as long as he does not interbreed with non-Germanic peoples.
When Hitler said, "Take away the Nordic Germans and nothing remains but the dance of apes," he based the thought on the Darwinist ideas that man had evolved from apes, for which reason some humans still possessed "ape "status.87
This logic is a consequence of seeing man as a species of animal, and that there are "superior" and "inferior" races within this species of animal. That is, in any case, the thesis put forward by Darwin in The Descent of Man and The Origin of Species. All the Nazis did was to put Darwin's theory into practice.
The truth of the matter is that human superiority has nothing to do with race. No matter from what race people may be, they are still people. Each one was created and placed in the world by God. The Koran reveals this truth thus:
Mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in God's sight is that one of you who best performs his duty. God is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (Koran, 49:13)
The above verse is perfectly clear. No matter by what criteria human beings are judged in this world, in God's eyes, superiority consists of closeness to Him, and fear of Him.
An individual or group which chooses to see one race as superior, or tries to demonstrate it to be so, is deceiving itself. Everyone will have to appear before God at the Day of Reckoning, and will be called to account alone. Those attributes that he perceived as conferring superiority in this world will be of no use to him then. Quite the contrary, those who set up criteria outside those revealed by God, who claim that they are superior and oppress others, and who try to gain strength by crushing the weak, will definitely reap the fruit of their actions, both in this world and the next. In the holy verses of the Koran, this reality is revealed in the following manner:
...[S]hown by their arrogance in the land and evil plotting. But evil plotting envelops only those who do it. Do they expect anything but the pattern of previous peoples? You will not find any changing in the pattern of God. You will not find any alteration in the pattern of God. Have they not travelled in the land and seen the final fate of those before them? They were far greater than them in strength. God cannot be withstood in any way, either in the heavens or on earth. He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful. (Koran, 35:43-44)
There are only grounds against those who wrong people and act as tyrants in the earth without any right to do so. Such people will have a painful punishment. (Koran, 42:42)
Fascism's Hatred of Religion
One of the common attitudes all fascist regimes have possessed is that concerning religion. At first glance, it would appear that all fascist regimes have supported the religion of their peoples. But, the fascists have not been sincere in this endeavor. Their only aim is to dupe their people and religious organizations. It makes no difference to fascists whether the religion in question is Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism or any other. It is sufficient that the religion is seen as enabling that society to bind together and to motivate people to work in the interests of fascism. When one examines the policies and practices of fascist dictators such as Hitler, Mussolini and Franco, and even such contemporary fascists as Saddam Hussein, the true face of their enmity towards religion can be clearly seen.
First of all, it is impossible for fascists to genuinely defend religion, because their character and principles are the exact opposite of the ethical foundation that religion instills in people. While the religion that God has chosen for mankind is one of peace and serenity, fascism consists of war and agitation. God commands pleasant speech, forgiveness and love, whereas fascists desire hatred and continual warfare. Therefore, fascists are not genuinely interested in seeing religion flourish, nor do they wish to see the ethics that accompany religion broadly disseminated, because, if this were to happen, then they will be unable to govern society according to their fascist ideals. For this reason, they seek to give the impression that they are committed to religion, although they also try to prevent its propagation through various measures and practices.
The history of the 20th century is full of such examples.
The Nazi's Hatred of Religion
We have already examined the roots of Nazi ideology and its attitude to religion. As is shown in the examples we have considered, the Nazi ideology was perverse and opposed to all divine religions. The foundations of this ideology rest on Nietzsche's anti-religious philosophy, and Darwin's atheist theory of evolution which denies the fact of creation. The Nazis' perspective of ethics was in imitation of the pagan culture of ancient Greece and pre-Christian barbarian German tribes: Nazism was a pagan, idolatrous ideology.
This fact has been expressed by many commentators on the subject. In an article titled "Darwinism and the Nazi Race Holocaust," the American researcher Jerry Bergman describes the Nazis' view of religion as such ,
Expunging of the Judeo-Christian doctrine of the divine origin of humans from mainline German (liberal) theology and its schools, and replacing it with Darwinism, openly contributed to the acceptance of Social Darwinism that culminated in the tragedy of the holocaust.
Daniel Gasman, the author of The Scientific Origins of National Socialism, agrees:
[Hitler] stressed and singled out the idea of biological evolution as the most forceful weapon against traditional religion and he repeatedly condemned Christianity for its opposition to the teachings of evolution. For Hitler evolution was the hallmark of modern science and culture, and he defended its veracity as tenaciously as Haeckel.
Hitler once revealed his hatred of religion when he bluntly stated that religion is an:
organized lie [that] must be smashed. The State must remain the absolute master. When I was younger, I thought it was necessary to set about [destroying religion]
with dynamite. I've since realized there's room for a little subtlety... The final state must be
in St. Peter's Chair, a senile officiant; facing him a few sinister old women
The young and healthy are on our side
Our peoples had previously succeeded in living all right without this religion. I have six divisions of SS men absolutely indifferent in matters of religion. It doesn't prevent them from going to their death with serenity in their souls.
As we have seen, the only notion Hitler considered necessary, on a spiritual level, was the understanding which leads people to "go to their death with serenity in their souls." This ideal was found in such pagan concepts as "the German soul," and "martial honor." He looked on divine religions, on the other hand, as beliefs that need to be "destroyed with dynamite."
Hitler summed up his views on religion to his staff at a meeting at his house in Oberzalsberg: You see it's been our misfortune to have the wrong religion. Why didn't we have the religion of the Japanese, who regard sacrifice for the Fatherland as the highest good?
This was Hitler's true opinion of religion. If religion had commanded war, as with that of the Japanese, then it could be accepted in order to be used for his own ends. But Christianity taught peace, not war, and personal sacrifice instead of selfishness and rivalry. For this reason, the Nazi Party waged a continuous war against the Catholic Church.
But it also tried to establish a "Christianity appropriate to Nazism."
Fascism's Hypocritical Policy of Religion
Hitler's hypocritical policy towards religion was not a method restricted to Nazism, but is a general characteristic of fascist regimes. Religion is merely used as a tool by fascist ideologues, because they realize that they will be faced with a fierce reaction from people as a result of their cruelty and racist policies unless they disguise them in religious rhetoric. So, they distort religion to suit their own ends. They use the language and ideals of their society's religion, but when it comes to its implementation, a system very far removed from religion becomes recognizable.
The strategy is merely a policy designed by fascist leaders in order to unite their people under them, because they realize that people will be prepared to make all sorts of sacrifices in the name of religion, and are willing to endure a great deal for the sake of these lofty beliefs. So, they present themselves as acting in the name of God and religion. They seek to portray a religious image of themselves by exploiting the language and symbols of faith in their slogans, and propaganda. Hypocritically though, fascists carry out the great cruelties and inhumane acts which they believe to be necessary. In essence, what fascists practice and what they preach are totally opposed. The fascists' deceptive use of religion in this way and for their own power is merely another example of the extent of their malevolence.
God has this to say about those who use lies against Him:
Who could do greater wrong than those who invent lies against God? Such people will be arrayed before their Lord and the witnesses will say, "Those are the ones who lied against their Lord." Yes indeed! God's curse is on the wrongdoers. (Koran, 11:18)
On the other hand, those who are deceived by fascist slogans and influenced by their tactics are not to be perceived as sincere either. These people are rude and ignorant, with a poorly developed reasoning ability, who see religion merely as a legacy inherited from their ancestors. For this reason, they either fail to see or ignore the falsehood, depravity and lack of coherence by which the fascists employ religion.
As we have seen in the previous pages, fascists have used religion to effect in people the belief that racism and a Darwinist outlook on the world are proper and correct. But, this strategy merely again reveals the fascists' lack of intelligence. Because, it is obvious that religion does not support racism, nor competition or a struggle for survival among people. God has revealed that the only superiority between people lies in godliness, which is dependant on devotion, love and co-operation between people, and not on competition. However, fascists are only able to deceive the most ignorant sections of society with this false appearance of religion.